On computers, a device driver is a package with instructions that allows (in this case) Windows 10 to communicate and control a particular piece of hardware (such as graphics card, printers, Bluetooth and network adapters).
Understanding the driver version currently installed on your computer can be useful information to determine if an update is needed, as manufacturers usually release driver updates multiple times a year to improve performance and stability, add new features, and fix issues.
Using the Dev C Compiler to Create a Program The compiler will open a console window (similar to the image below) and execute your program within it. In programs that require data entry, you would enter any test data necessary and check the results for accuracy. Display a progress bar during e2fsck check. Using -C option, you can specify a file descriptor, where e2fsck will send the output, which is useful when you are doing e2fsck from a shell script. If you specify “-C 0”, it will display a progress bar while e2fsck is doing the check, which is useful, as you can see that it is doing something. Prev Next In this chapter, we are going to learn how to setup C development environment using GCC compiler in your machine and how to compile and execute a C program by your own. Note: GCC (GNU Compiler Collection) is a compiler used to compile both C and C programs. GCC is just a compiler. It is not an IDE ( Integrated Development Environment ) such as Turbo C, Borland C and Dev C We.
In this Windows 10 guide, we walk you through the steps to check the version of a device driver using Device Manager and PowerShell.
How to determine driver version using Device Manager
To determine the driver version for a particular piece of hardware with Device Manager, use these steps:
- Open Start.
- Search for Device Manager and click the top result to open the experience.
- Expand the branch for the device that you want to check the driver version.
Right-click the device and select the Properties option.
- Click the Driver tab.
Check the installed driver version of the device.
Once you complete these steps, you'll know the current driver version, which you can check against the version number available on your manufacturer support website to determine if Windows 10 is using the most up-to-date release.
Alongside the driver version, using the 'Driver' tab, you can also find out other useful information, such as the date when the current version of the driver was installed, and if the driver has been properly signed.
How to determine driver version using PowerShell
If you want to check the driver version for one or more devices, you can also use this PowerShell command:
- Open Start.
- Search for PowerShell, right-click the top result, and select Run as administrator.
Type the following command to list the drivers installed on your computer and press Enter:
Get-WmiObject Win32_PnPSignedDriver select DeviceName, Manufacturer, DriverVersion
- The version of the drivers will be displayed in third column on the right.
After completing the steps, the command will display all the device drivers currently installed on your system alphabetically with their manufacturer names and versions.
More Windows 10 resources
For more helpful articles, coverage, and answers to common questions about Windows 10, visit the following resources:Dedication pays off
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The header files for the Windows API enable you to create 32- and 64-bit applications. They include declarations for both Unicode and ANSI versions of the API. For more information, see Unicode in the Windows API. They use data types that enable you to build both 32- and 64-bit versions of your application from a single source code base. For more information, see Getting Ready for 64-bit Windows. Additional features include Header Annotations and STRICT Type Checking.
Visual C++ and the Windows Header Files
Microsoft Visual C++ includes copies of the Windows header files that were current at the time Visual C++ was released. Therefore, if you install updated header files from an SDK, you may end up with multiple versions of the Windows header files on your computer. If you do not ensure that you are using the latest version of the SDK header files, you will receive the following error code when compiling code that uses features that were introduced after Visual C++ was released: error C2065: undeclared identifier.
Macros for Conditional Declarations
Certain functions that depend on a particular version of Windows are declared using conditional code. This enables you to use the compiler to detect whether your application uses functions that are not supported on its target version(s) of Windows. To compile an application that uses these functions, you must define the appropriate macros. Otherwise, you will receive the C2065 error message.
The Windows header files use macros to indicate which versions of Windows support many programming elements. Therefore, you must define these macros to use new functionality introduced in each major operating system release. (Individual header files may use different macros; therefore, if compilation problems occur, check the header file that contains the definition for conditional definitions.) For more information, see SdkDdkVer.h.
The following table describes the preferred macros used in the Windows header files. If you define NTDDI_VERSION, you must also define _WIN32_WINNT.
|Minimum system required||Value for NTDDI_VERSION|
|Windows 10 1903 '19H1'||NTDDI_WIN10_19H1 (0x0A000007)|
|Windows 10 1809 'Redstone 5'||NTDDI_WIN10_RS5 (0x0A000006)|
|Windows 10 1803 'Redstone 4'||NTDDI_WIN10_RS4 (0x0A000005)|
|Windows 10 1709 'Redstone 3'||NTDDI_WIN10_RS3 (0x0A000004)|
|Windows 10 1703 'Redstone 2'||NTDDI_WIN10_RS2 (0x0A000003)|
|Windows 10 1607 'Redstone 1'||NTDDI_WIN10_RS1 (0x0A000002)|
|Windows 10 1511 'Threshold 2'||NTDDI_WIN10_TH2 (0x0A000001)|
|Windows 10 1507 'Threshold'||NTDDI_WIN10 (0x0A000000)|
|Windows 8.1||NTDDI_WINBLUE (0x06030000)|
|Windows 8||NTDDI_WIN8 (0x06020000)|
|Windows 7||NTDDI_WIN7 (0x06010000)|
|Windows Server 2008||NTDDI_WS08 (0x06000100)|
|Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 (SP1)||NTDDI_VISTASP1 (0x06000100)|
|Windows Vista||NTDDI_VISTA (0x06000000)|
|Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 2 (SP2)||NTDDI_WS03SP2 (0x05020200)|
|Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 1 (SP1)||NTDDI_WS03SP1 (0x05020100)|
|Windows Server 2003||NTDDI_WS03 (0x05020000)|
|Windows XP with Service Pack 3 (SP3)||NTDDI_WINXPSP3 (0x05010300)|
|Windows XP with Service Pack 2 (SP2)||NTDDI_WINXPSP2 (0x05010200)|
|Windows XP with Service Pack 1 (SP1)||NTDDI_WINXPSP1 (0x05010100)|
|Windows XP||NTDDI_WINXP (0x05010000)|
The following tables describe other macros used in the Windows header files.
|Minimum system required||Minimum value for _WIN32_WINNT and WINVER|
|Windows 10||_WIN32_WINNT_WIN10 (0x0A00)|
|Windows 8.1||_WIN32_WINNT_WINBLUE (0x0603)|
|Windows 8||_WIN32_WINNT_WIN8 (0x0602)|
|Windows 7||_WIN32_WINNT_WIN7 (0x0601)|
|Windows Server 2008||_WIN32_WINNT_WS08 (0x0600)|
|Windows Vista||_WIN32_WINNT_VISTA (0x0600)|
|Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows XP with SP2||_WIN32_WINNT_WS03 (0x0502)|
|Windows Server 2003, Windows XP||_WIN32_WINNT_WINXP (0x0501)|
|Minimum version required||Minimum value of _WIN32_IE|
|Internet Explorer 11.0||_WIN32_IE_IE110 (0x0A00)|
|Internet Explorer 10.0||_WIN32_IE_IE100 (0x0A00)|
|Internet Explorer 9.0||_WIN32_IE_IE90 (0x0900)|
|Internet Explorer 8.0||_WIN32_IE_IE80 (0x0800)|
|Internet Explorer 7.0||_WIN32_IE_IE70 (0x0700)|
|Internet Explorer 6.0 SP2||_WIN32_IE_IE60SP2 (0x0603)|
|Internet Explorer 6.0 SP1||_WIN32_IE_IE60SP1 (0x0601)|
|Internet Explorer 6.0||_WIN32_IE_IE60 (0x0600)|
|Internet Explorer 5.5||_WIN32_IE_IE55 (0x0550)|
|Internet Explorer 5.01||_WIN32_IE_IE501 (0x0501)|
|Internet Explorer 5.0, 5.0a, 5.0b||_WIN32_IE_IE50 (0x0500)|
Setting WINVER or _WIN32_WINNT
You can define these symbols by using the #define statement in each source file, or by specifying the /D compiler option supported by Visual C++.
For example, to set WINVER in your source file, use the following statement:
#define WINVER 0x0502
To set _WIN32_WINNT in your source file, use the following statement:
#define _WIN32_WINNT 0x0502
To set _WIN32_WINNT using the /D compiler option, use the following command:
cl -c /D_WIN32_WINNT=0x0502source.cpp
For information on using the /D compiler option, see /D (preprocessor definitions).
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Note that some features introduced in the latest version of Windows may be added to a service pack for a previous version of Windows. Therefore, to target a service pack, you may need to define _WIN32_WINNT with the value for the next major operating system release. For example, the GetDllDirectory function was introduced in Windows Server 2003 and is conditionally defined if _WIN32_WINNT is 0x0502 or greater. This function was also added to Windows XP with SP1. Therefore, if you were to define _WIN32_WINNT as 0x0501 to target Windows XP, you would miss features that are defined in Windows XP with SP1.
Controlling Structure Packing
Projects should be compiled to use the default structure packing, which is currently 8 bytes because the largest integral type is 8 bytes. Doing so ensures that all structure types within the header files are compiled into the application with the same alignment the Windows API expects. It also ensures that structures with 8-byte values are properly aligned and will not cause alignment faults on processors that enforce data alignment.
For more information, see /Zp (struct member alignment) or pack.
Faster Builds with Smaller Header Files
You can reduce the size of the Windows header files by excluding some of the less common API declarations as follows:
Define WIN32_LEAN_AND_MEAN to exclude APIs such as Cryptography, DDE, RPC, Shell, and Windows Sockets.
Define one or more of the NOapi symbols to exclude the API. For example, NOCOMM excludes the serial communication API. For a list of support NOapi symbols, see Windows.h.